ESC calibration protocol
 Oneshot and Multishot ESC
What is ESC?

The ESC (Electronic speed controller) is an electronic circuit that controls and regulates the speed of BLDC (Brushless DC) motor; it provides reversing and breaking of the motor. Basically, it is the speed controller for a BLDC motor. for more ESC’s click here


Brief information about Firmware:

ESC firmware is the software running on every ESC, which determines the ESC’s performance. This gives information about which protocols are supported, and what configuration interface can be used. The firmware that an ESC can use is dependent on the hardware.

The different types of Firmware are:

  1. BLHeli.
  2. BLHeli_S.
  3. SimonK.
  4. Kiss.
  5. BLHeli_32.
  6. Other manufacturer’s own software.

Brief information about protocol:

ESC Protocols is the “language” that the flight controllers and ESC use to communicate, one of the most basic tasks is to tell how fast the motor should be spinning.

Now, what is Oneshot, Multishot, etc.?

The Oneshot, Multishot and Dshot are the ESC calibration protocols. This protocol allows connecting Electronic speed controllers (ESC) to flight controller or Radio receivers i.e. this protocol tells us how we are controlling the speed of BLDC motor and what is its duty cycle for each protocol. This protocol allows transmitter (Remote controllers) to pass the information to ESC.

There are different types of protocol, have a look

  1. Analog PWM.
  2. Standard PWM.
  3. Oneshot125
  4. Oneshot42
  5. Multishot
  6. Dshot (Digital shot).
  7. Proshot.
A. Analog PWM:

0% duty cycle means STOP and 100% duty cycle means FULL POWER.

B. Standard PWM:

If pulse length is 1ms then STOP and when pulse length is 2ms then FULL POWER. Therefore the maximum frequency is 500Hz. In this protocol, if the signal delay is 2ms then the flight controller will start delaying signal to ESC by 2ms.

C. Oneshot125:

In this protocol, the pulse length is 8 times shorter than standard PWM. If pulse length is 125µs then STOP and if pulse length is 250µs then FULL POWER. The maximum frequency is 4 kHz. For successful calibration and operation flight controller as well as ESC both have to support this protocol.

D. Oneshot42:

This Oneshot ESC is 3 times faster than Oneshot125 with a maximum frequency of 12 kHz and a signal delay of 42µs.

difference bet oneshot and multishot

E. Multishot:

This is the fastest ESC protocol among all the above with a maximum frequency of 32 kHz. It is 10 times faster than Oneshot125. This is not a widely supported protocol because of a limited number of Multishot ESC’s.

F. Dshot ESC (Digital shot):

Standard PWM, Oneshot125, Oneshot42, and Multishot these are all analog signals. They all rely on the length of the electrical pulse to determine the value being sent.

The Dshot is itself a digital signal so it’s exciting to know that ESC calibration will no longer be necessary. Because of the nature of the digital signal, which is one’s and zero’s, it will also be much more resistant to electrical noise.

All FPV Drone racing kits include FPV, ESC, BLDC motor and radio transmitter.

There are three different Dshot protocol types:

  1. DShot1200 ESC – 1200Kbits/Sec.
  2. DShot600 ESC – 600Kbits/Sec.
  3. DShot300 ESC – 300Kbits/Sec.
  4. DShot150 ESC – 150Kbits/Sec.
Advantages of Dshot:
  1. Very high protocol frame frames are supported.
  2. No need to do any ESC throttle range calibration.
  3. Clock differences between the ESC and flight controller don’t affect flight.
  4. All values sent to the ESC are protected with a 4 bit CRC.
G. Proshot:

The Proshot is a hybridization of digital(Dshot) and analog(Oneshot/ Multishot) ESC protocols; which aims to achieve robustness like digital protocol and flexibility in hardware like analog protocols.

Proshot and dshot protocol

Back to Electronic speed controllers (ESC) Click here!


( Pi 4 Model B




After Huge Success of Raspberry Pi 3 Model B and B+, Raspberry Pi Foundation unveiled the latest board in their lineup, RASPBERRY PI 4 MODEL B. Taking many fans and community members by surprise, the Raspberry Pi foundation has announced the brand new Raspberry Pi 4 Model B, a significant upgrade to the Raspberry Pi 3 generation.

The Raspberry Pi 4 series was not expected until 2020, but according to the launch announcement, the second of four planned silicon revisions for the new device’s processor turned out to be production-ready, saving up to a year of development time. In a blog post announcing the release, Raspberry Pi Ltd founder and CEO, Eben Upton, describes this new model as able to provide a “PC-like level of performance for most users” for the first time, without sacrificing any of the Rasberry Pi’s standard capabilities as a development and hobbyist device. As an official reseller of Raspberry Pi in India, We made it available on launch date without any waiting time.

A new Pi 4 is upgraded, more powerful next generation of Pi computer than before, that is Raspberry Pi 4 Model B and B+As can be seen in the photo at the top, the model 4 B is yet another evolution in the Pi model B family. On this board, Raspberry Pi Foundation has made great significant hardware upgrade which can be seen just by comparing the Top view images of Pi3 and Pi4. This time they have upgraded the Pi in all the ways all Pi lovers were expecting from a long time indeed. However, while the footprint of the board remains pretty much the same as the Raspberry Pi 3, the board itself looks somewhat different.

( Pi 3 Model B+ Vs Model 4B TOPVIEW


Raspberry Pi 4 Model B is the latest product in the popular Raspberry Pi range of computers. It offers ground-breaking increases in processor speed, multimedia performance, memory, and connectivity compared to the prior-generation Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+ while retaining backward compatibility and similar power consumption. For the end-user, Raspberry Pi 4 Model B provides desktop performance comparable to entry-level x86 PC systems.

Pi 4 B is upgraded with Latest High-Performance Quad-Core 64-bit Broadcom 2711, Cortex A72  processor clocked at 1.5GHz speed. Which is designed to use 20% less power or offer 90% greater performance than its old version.


Raspberry Pi 4 Model-B with 2 GB RAM--BC_CHIP


Hardware upgrade on Pi4 developed for more faster performance not only the loading time with all-new 1GB/2GB and 4GB LPDDR4 SDRAM variants but also in connectivity with Dual-band 2.4GHz and 5GHz, 802.11 b/g/n/ac wireless LAN and PoE capability via a separate PoE HAT. Addition to its USB 3.0, improve the transfer speed by 10x than USB 2.0 to provide you significantly faster true Gigabit internet experience.


)Raspberry Pi 4 Model-B with 2 GB RAM--ETHERNET


The other big change is visible to the right of the board are Video output, now you can enjoy 4K video using Pi 4 as video performance on Pi 4 B is also upgraded with on Board Dual-display support at resolutions up to 4K via a pair of micro-HDMI ports,  which supports H 265 Decode (4Kp60), H.264, and MPEG-4 decode (1080p60). Now you can connect Two Display at the same time with a 4K resolution with the help of  Micro HDMI Male to Standard HDMI Male Cable


Raspberry Pi 4 Model-B with 4 GB RAM--HDMI

With the latest Bluetooth 5.0 technology make IoT solution better with 2 x Speed, 4 x Range and 8 x Data transfer speed, having such a faster and long-distance connectivity, you will experience peripheral’s Bluetooth connectivity on the next level than before. Furthermore, One big needful upgrade that Pi foundation has made in Raspberry Pi 4 B is Type-C USB Port from which Pi can take up to 3A current to operate, and hence now Pi 4 can provide more power to onboard chips and peripherals interfaced as well.


Raspberry Pi 4 Model-B with 2 GB RAM--POWER_PORT

Though the Pi 4 has type C USB port for 5V 3A input power capacity, new Hardware on Pi 4 even required less power than the previous versions therefore old power adapter can provide plenty of power to the chip, Ethernet, and any USB add-ons you plug in onboard. You need not to worry about power adapter as it will also work great with your old 5V 2.4A power supply Adapter,  All you need is micro-USB B (F) to Type C (M) Adapter which we made available for you at

Another extremely distinguishing legacy feature from Pi3 Model B+ of the Pi 4B is the Improved PoE compatibility. The Pi’s PoE Switch HAT is a power over Ethernet add-on board for the Raspberry Pi. One can now power the Raspberry Pi and provide an Ethernet connection in any location with just a single cable. Raspberry Pi Foundation requires the use of the new PoE HAT which converts the 48V PoE supply to a Pi friendly 5V.  On the note of power, Raspberry Pi did some really awesome planning which has allowed for higher performance than the Pi 3B.

With upgraded hardware of Pi 4, you can still use all your favourite Raspbian or PIXEL software with this update. You must make sure to upgrade your Raspbian operating system install to the latest version so that the firmware can support the new chips! Old SD cards from previous releases will not work without an upgrade!

Software & OS
  1. Download NOOBS.  here.  Beginners should start with the NOOBS (New Out Of Box Software) operating system installation manager, which gives the user a choice of an operating system from the standard distributions.
  2. Raspbian is the recommended operating system for normal use on a Raspberry Pi. Find help with installing Raspbian on your Pi in our online Getting started guide.
  3. You can browse basic examples to help you get started with some of the software available in Raspbian, find more detail about the Raspbian operating system, or read the information on fundamental Linux usage and commands for navigating the Raspberry Pi and managing its file system and users.
  4. To explore all other  Operating System supported by Raspberry Pi 4  click here.

Technical Specifications:

  1. Processor: Broadcom 2711, Quad-Core Cortex A72 (ARM V8-A) 64-bit SoC Clocked at  5GHz
  2. Memory: 1GB~4GB LPDDR4 SDRAM
  3. Bluetooth: Cypress BLE chip for Bluetooth 5.0
  4. Ethernet: High-Speed Gigabit Ethernet over USB 3.0
  5. USB: 2 x USB 2.0 ports and 2 x USB 3.0 Ports
  6. Connection: GPIO Header 40-pin
  7. HDMI: 2 x Micro HDMI
  8. Storage: micro SD card slot for loading operating system and data storage
  9. Power: 5V / 3A dc via USB Type C, 5V DC via GPIO,  POE enabled
  10. Video: 2 x Micro HDMI for 4K video Output, MIPI DSI display port, MIPI CSI camera port & 4 Pole stereo output and composite video port
  11. Multimedia: H 265 Decode (4Kp60), H.264, MPEG-4 decode (1080p60). H.264 encode (1080p30). OpenGL ES 1.1, 2.0, and 3.0 graphics.

Compatibility of Pi 3 Model B+ vs. Pi 4 Model B

The new Pi4 B board is actually using the same footprint as the previous 3 B, B+ model and the Raspberry Pi 2. Therefore you can use it as an upgrade to existing projects.

The new Pi4 B model features upgraded board components and Hardware to help your applications and calculations run faster and smoother.

The Pi 4 B also featured with Cortex A72  processor an exciting 64-bit quad-core processor running at 10x faster than the previous model. with less power requirement and improved thermal management.

Quick Links for product Page:
  1. Combo of Raspberry Pi 4B + Micro-HDMI Cable + Micro USB-B (F) to USB Type C (M) Adapter
  2. Raspberry Pi 4 Model-B with 1 GB RAM
  3. Raspberry Pi 4 Model-B with 2 GB RAM
  4. Raspberry Pi 4 Model-B with 4 GB RAM
  5. Micro USB-B Female to USB Type C Male Adapter for Raspberry Pi 4
  6. Acrylic Case for Raspberry Pi 4 Model B


Still, you might curious about comparatively what’s new and what’s the same with the Raspberry Pi 4 Model B? So here’s the comparison chart with highlighted points where you will get everything you need to know at a glance!

Comparison Raspberry Pi 4 Model-B



Pitch Circle Diameter (PCD) is also known as Reference Circle.




  • ØH: Hub Diameter
  • ØB: Bore Diameter or Internal Diameter (ID)
  • W: Total Width of Gear
  • FW: Face Width
  • ØPCD: Pitch Circle Diameter or Reference Circle
  • ØOD: Outside Diameter

To select Appropriate Gears for your Application, you need to consider the following four Parameters

1. Module (M):

The Module describes the size of a gear. A pair of gears can mesh correctly only if Module of both gears are same. So select the gear with the same Module (M) to be mesh together with the Different number of teeth according to your Gear ratio requirement.



2. Teeth

 Decide the Number of teeth according to your speed Reduction or Increment requirements.

Here in Above Example, Because gear “A” has 20 teeth and “B” has 40 teeth,  “B” will travel through ONE complete Turns/Rotation for TWO complete Turn/Rotation of Drive gear “A”,  this would give a ratio of 2:1. as we considered A as Drive Gear.

If we consider the things in another way and reverse the setup and gears as  “A” as a driven gear and “B” as a drive gear then the ratio would become 1:2, i.e. rotational speed will be doubled at “A”.

Likewise, Various teeth ratio decides the speed reduction/Increment of Driven Gear.

 3. Internal Diameter (ID)

Internal Diameter is also known as Bore diameter of gear where you connect the shaft of Drive motor to the gear. For example for if your Motor/Application shaft is of 6 mm Diameter, then select the gear with same 6 mm Internal Diameter (ID)

4. Pitch Circle Diameter (PCD):

PCD is also important to be considered while selecting Gears because it decides the distance between Drive and Driven Shaft. A pair of gears should mesh in such a way that their reference circles which are also known as PCD are in contact, the centre distance (a) is half the sum total of their reference diameters.

Center distance (a)
a = (d1+d2) / 2

So, “a” will be the distance between two Shafts on which Drive or Driven Gears to be mounted.



1)  IoT? What is that?

We question a lot. We are the ones who challenge the status quo of existing rules and strive to build/produce something better. Such curiosity & efforts have promised us a life where electronic devices & machines will probably become our best friend.

Yes, you read it correctly the vision to make machines smart enough to reduce human labor to almost nil. The idea of inter-connected devices where the devices are smart enough to share information with us, to cloud-based applications and to each other (device to device).

The internet of things, or IoT, is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction


1)  History of IoT?

Kevin Ashton, the co-founder of the Auto-ID Center at MIT, first mentioned the internet of things in a presentation he made to Procter & Gamble (P&G) in 1999. Wanting to bring radio frequency ID (RFID) to the attention of P&G’s senior management, Ashton called his presentation “Internet of Things” to incorporate the cool new trend of 1999: the internet. MIT professor Neil Gershenfeld’s book, When Things Start to Think, also appearing in 1999, didn’t use the exact term but provided a clear vision of where IoT was headed.

IoT has evolved from the convergence of wireless technologies, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), microservices and the internet. The convergence has helped tear down the silos between operational technology (OT) and information technology (IT), enabling unstructured machine-generated data to be analyzed for insights to drive improvements.

How many IoT Device Products  In 2020?

There will be 8.4 billion connected things in 2017, setting the stage for 20.4 billion Internet of Things (IoT) devices to be deployed by 2020

    like our Facebook Page To Get More Updates 

We are pleased to announce that we are now an official Raspberry Pi Authorized Reseller!

This recognition comes from the Pi Foundation for all the work we have done over the last 3 years promotion the Raspberry Pi. Thanks to the Pi Foundation for making us reseller in India.

The Raspberry Pi is a series of small single-board computers developed in the United Kingdom by the Raspberry Pi Foundation to promote teaching of basic computer science in schools and in developing countries. In March 2018, sales reached 19 million. Making it best-selling “general purpose computer”.

Buy Now


Components required to build robot for ABU Robocon 2019 Mangolia Theme

With the release of ROBOCON 2019 theme we have been receiving lot of queries from all over India. In order to answer them all in a more efficient manner we have provided a general format in which you can submit your queries and also tried to answer your most frequently asked questions (FAQ’s)

Please download the “ROBOCON 2019 FAQ’s” from the link provided and follow the points mentioned it carefully when contacting us for your requests/queries/issues. 2019 FAQs

Abu Robocon 2019 Mongolia Theme “GREAT URTUU” and rulebook launched. 2 Robots to be built, 1 wheeled manual robot another autonomous quadruped.

ABU Robocon 2019 Mongolia Theme rulebook

Download Rulebook

Explore the Product Category created for  ROBOCON 2019.


Theme Video:

Easymech Logo

What is EasyMech ?

Today while making a project, Controllers like Arduino and their sensors have made life easy for us on the electronics side. They are really easy to use and easily available. But when it comes to mechanical products, it’s not the same.

One of the big problems for users in the areas of hobby, education, Engineering and research is unavailability of good mechanical components for making a project. They are really hard to find and even harder to manufacture because of the need for machinery.

EasyMech is a brand of which intends to make the life of users easy; by providing easy to use mechanical products.

This series will include thoughtfully designed mechanical products like brackets, couplings, chassis, Wheels, arms and grippers and many more.

If you find any mechanical product which should be part of this mission to make things easy, just let us know at and we will make it for you.

ABU Robcon 2018 will be held in Vietnam.







Download ABU Robocon 2017 TOKYO Theme & Rulebook

abu robocon 2017 japan

downloadABU Robocon 2017 Japan RuleBook

downloadABU Robocon 2017 Figures


3d Model of gamefield of ABU Robocon 2017 Japan  for simulation for designing robots

We have made 3d models of gamefield for ABU Robocon 2017 Japan. Using these 3d Models. You can test you ideas and machines in a 3d simulation software. We have included files in format of .igs , .stp, catia, creo and solidworks.


3d PDF with measurement tools of ABU Robocon 2017 Japan




The ABU Asia-Pacific Robot Contest “Robocon 2017” will be held in Tokyo, Japan.

To get the participants acquainted with the format of the contest, the theme rule book was launched by NHK Japan.

The theme revolves around the word “asobi” (play), which is also a fundamental philosophy behind Robocon.

In “asobi,” playful, unique, original show of skills is often more important than winning or losing, as everyone – friend and foe alike – can applaud and enjoy them.

The Safety:

In ABU Robocon, safety is a top priority. Participants shall give safety precedence over everything at all times, from the robot designing and building stages to taking part in the actual contest.

They are also asked to cooperate fully with the organizer in order to ensure a safe running of the contest for everyone involved, including team members, spectators, officials, and staff, as well as for the surrounding environment.

The Domestic Contests:

All domestic contests held in order to select the representing teams that will participate in ABU Robocon 2017 Tokyo should adhere to the rules laid out in this Rule Book.

However, it is understood that if (a) material(s) is/are not available, organisers are to employ the best possible replacement(s) available in their country/region.

Contest Dates:

ABU Robocon 2017 Tokyo 19 August, 2017

(Sat.) ————Test runs

20 (Sun.) ————Contest

21 (Mon.) ———–Friendship Exchange

Venue: Ota-City General Gymnasium (Ota-ku, Tokyo)

Contest Rules:


Contest Outline:

  1. Each game will be conducted between two teams, each with one (1) robot.
  2. The game field is a rectangle divided into two sides for each team. (see Figures)
  3. Each side consists of a Start Zone, Throwing Area, and Loading Area as seen in Figures.
  4. On the field are seven (7) spots consisting of a circular table attached to a column with varying heights and areas.
  5. Of the seven (7) spots, five (5) are placed along the centre line dividing the sides, while the remaining two (2) are placed near to each side.
  6. The heights and sizes of each spot are as shown in Figures.
  7. At the start of the game, a beach ball rests on the centre of all the spots.
  8. The number of discs a team can use during the game shall be fifty (50) placed at the Loading Area.
  9. After the start of the game, the team may load discs onto its robot once the robot reaches the Loading Area.
  10. The robots of both teams may throw discs at any ball on any spot to knock the balls off the spots.
  11. Scores will be counted when a team’s disc lands on a spot where its ball has been knocked off.
  12. When all the balls have been knocked off of their spot and a team successfully lands its discs on all the spots, that team reaches “APPARE!”, and is declared the winner of the game.
  13. If neither team reaches “APPARE!”, and either both use up the fifty (50) discs or the game time of three (3) minutes passes, the game shall end. The winner will be decided by who has the higher score at the said end of the game.

Game Procedure:


  1. Prior to each game, a one-minute set-up time is given to the teams through the signal from the referee.
  2. The three (3) team members and up to three (3) pit crew members shall be allowed to participate in the set-up.
  3. Each team shall commence set-up when the signal is given, and must stop when the one (1) minute is up.
  4. If a team fails to complete its set-up within the given one (1) minute, it may resume set-up after the start of the game by obtaining permission from the referee.

Start of the game:

  1. After the end of set-up time, the game shall begin at the signal from the referee.
  2. Teams that complete their set-up after the start of the game shall obtain permission from the referee at that moment to commence moving their robots.

Team members during the game:

  1. Team members are not allowed to enter the game field without permission from the referee.
  2. Team members are not allowed to touch their robot other than after referee permission during a retry or disc loading.
  3. If a team is controlling the robot manually, one (1) pre-registered operator may do so from the designated area outside the game field.

Handling of the discs:

  1. During the game, a team may load the discs once all parts of the robot touching the game field floor completely enter the Loading Area, and permission is given by the referee.
  2. Team members may load the discs manually.
  3. Jigs and containers such as magazines may be used during loading, but if these are to remain attached to the robot, they shall be included in the 6 robot size.
  4. After loading, a team may restart after permission from the referee. Until then, no part of the robot may touch the floor outside the Loading Area.
  5. If a team is deemed to be in violation, the robot must return to LA for a mandatory retry.
  6. The robot may throw discs only when it is in contact with the Throwing Area and no other area.
  7. The discs for each team will be prepared by the organiser.
  8. If a disc that was loaded onto a robot falls on the floor in or outside the game field during the game, that disc becomes invalid and can no longer be used.


  1. After the start of the game, a team is given the following points when its disc lands on a spot without a ball 1) The spot nearest to the team: 1 point, regardless of number of discs 2) The five spots aligned in the center: 1 point per disc 3) The spot farthest from the team: 5 points per disc.
  2. Points shall be given regardless of whether the ball is knocked off before or after that disc lands.
  3. The score shall be finalized after the referee counts all the discs on the spots without their balls, after the end of the game.

End of the game:

  1. Once a team reaches “APPARE!”, the game shall end in that instant.
  2. The game shall also end if neither team reaches “APPARE!” and the game time of three (3) minutes passes.
  3. The game shall also end if both teams use up the fifty (50) discs without reaching “APPARE!”

Deciding the winner:

The winner shall be decided in the following order of priority:

1) The team who reaches “APPARE!”

2) The team with the higher score.

3) The team with more points from landing on the farthest spot.

4) The team with more spots from which they gained points 7.

5) The team with a higher total score gained from the center spots 6) Judges’ decision.


A retry is allowed only after the referee gives permission upon request from a team member.

The team granted a retry shall immediately carry its robot to the Start Zone and begin work there.

A team may ask for as many retries as necessary.

A team may not load discs during a retry.

The team may use discs already loaded on the robot before the retry is granted.

The team shall restart after permission from the referee.


The team who commits the following shall be deemed to be in violation of the rules and subject to a mandatory retry.

The robot or a part of the robot comes in contact with the No Contact Area.

A team member touches the robot without referee permission.

A team makes a false start. Any other acts deemed to be an infringement on the rules.


If a team is deemed to have committed the following intentionally, the team shall be disqualified for that game.

Any acts that pose danger to the game field, its surroundings, the robots, and/or people.

Use of wind as obstruction, and any other activity that can be judged to have no other purpose than to obstruct the opponent.

Any act of disobedience against a referee’s warning.

Any other act that goes against the spirit of fair play.


One (1) representing team from each country or region shall participate in ABU Robocon 2017.

As the host country, Japan shall be represented by two (2) teams.

A team consists of three (3) team members who are students and one instructor, who all belong to the same university/college/polytechnic.

In addition to the above mentioned 6.2, three (3) members are allowed to be registered as the pit crew.

The members of the pit crew shall also be students from the same university/college/polytechnic as those in 6.2

The pit crew may assist in the work in the pit area, in carrying the robot from the pit area to the game field, and during set-up.

Graduate students cannot participate.


Each team may bring one (1) robot only to participate in the contest.

The robot must be hand-built by students from the same university/college/polytechnic.

The robot may be fully automatic or controlled manually. It may be controlled wirelessly or by cable.

The robot must not split into parts during the game.

Robot size:

The robot (excluding the controller and cable) must fit into the Start Zone at the start of the game, including the space above.

Throughout the game, the robot together with any containers used in disc loading shall not exceed length 1500mm x width 1500mm x height 1800mm.

Robot weight:

The total weight of the robot, any containers that will be attached to the robot after disc loading, controller, cables, and any other equipment the team brings for use in the game must not exceed 25kg.

Back-up batteries (of the same type as that originally installed in the robot) are exempt.

Power source of the robot:

Each team shall prepare its own power source.

All batteries used in the robot, controller, and any other device used during the game shall not exceed 24V.

The maximum voltage within the circuit(s) shall not exceed 42V.

Teams using compressed air must use either a container made for the purpose, or a plastic soda bottle in pristine condition that is prepared appropriately. Air pressure must not exceed 600kPa.

Any power source deemed dangerous may be banned from use.


The robot must be designed and built so as to pose danger to no one, including the team, the opposing team, the people in the surroundings, and the venue.

Safety rules:

The use of the following are prohibited: lead-acid batteries (including colloidal), power sources that involve flames and/or high temperatures, anything that may contaminate the game field, as well as anything that may cause the robots to break down and/or create a situation that hinders the procession of the contest.

If laser is used, it shall be class 2 or less. Full care must be taken not to damage the eyes of anyone in the venue, from the design and practice stages.

Emergency stop buttons must be built on all robots.

1) Specifications: it shall be a red button on a yellow base. It is recommended that teams adhere to ISO 13850, or JIS B 9703. (JIS = Japanese Industrial Standard) 10.

2) Placement: it shall be placed where it is easy to find and activate, so that team members or the referee can stop the robot immediately in an emergency situation.

The referee and organisers will check to make sure the robot meets the safety requirements, and prohibit any team that does not meet them from participating.

Robocon 2016 Thailand theme rulebook problem statement

Download Robocon 2016 Thailand theme rulebook problem statement Now

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Watch Robocon 2016 Thailand Theme video in HD

ABU Robocon 2015 Indonasia Theme and rulebook PDF

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List of Teams with registration ID for Robocon India National 2014

teams 2014
teams 2014 2
teams 2014 3
teams 2014 4
teams 2014 5
teams 2014 6

ABU Robocon 2014 Pune India Theme Rulebook Problem Statement

“The Objective”

Two (2) teams play various game activities in the park with their Parent robot and Child robot. The Parent robot has to carry Child robot up-to the play zone and the Child robot plays game activity. Each team plays three (3) game activities such as Seesaw, Pole walk and Swing.

Once the Child Robot completes three (3) activities, it can challenge the fourth game activity, which is set in the middle of the park.The team successfully completing the fourth game activity first; accomplishes

“SHABAASH” (appreciation) and is declared “The Winner”.

Download PDF

[download id=”17″]




1. About Safety

1.1. Foreword

1.1.1. Safety is the most important issue to continue the Robot Contest to the future. Therefore every
participant has a duty of developing robot safely.

1.1.2. Besides an ethical aspect, keeping workplace safety will not only minimize the delay of robot development but also promote the completion of robot according to the schedule in case of accident. (An accident could lead to discontinuation and/or delay of project due to workers’ injury, investigation of the accident and implementation of the recurrence preventive measures)

1.2. Observance of a statute

Every participant in the Robocon project who builds robot must observe the related laws, regulations and ‘Safety and Health Guidelines’ defined by the participant’s university or equivalent regulations. Participants must develop, build and practice robot safely under the supervision and instruction of the university instructor. On the contest day, sufficient safety should be considered to the staff and the audience in the venue.

1.3. Safety measures

Due to robot operator’s operation mistake or by a reckless run of a control system or fracture of parts, the robot could stop, accelerate and turn suddenly causing the operator to collide with the robot’s sharp parts (cut surface of the structure) or come into contact and be caught in the movable parts (such as gears) and crush the ambient environment. Therefore, in addition to following examples, please take necessary safety measures.

1.4. Proposals for measures (examples)

1.4.1. As structural measures, securing front view, covering sharp parts or attaching cover to movable parts, should be considered.

1.4.2. As personal protective measures, wearing helmet protective glasses, gloves and clothing which is not easily caught in the robot, etc., should be considered.

1.4.3. As operational measures, placing emergency staff who can carry out emergency stop in addition to the operator, avoiding practice alone so that members can immediately respond to an accident, implementation of various checks, re-examination of practice environment, keeping the workplace clean and etc., should be considered.

1.5. Due to design mistake or reconstruction of the robot, overcurrent to a circuit, short circuit of the battery by a shock or a fire could cause a major accident. In addition to the following examples, please take necessary safetymeasures.

1.6. Proposals for measures (examples)

1.6.1. As structural measures, re-examination of fuse, wiring of suitable thickness, attachment position and isolation from combustibles etc., should be considered.

1.6.2. As operational measures, prohibiting disapproval reconstruction and using suitable battery charger etc., should be considered.

1.7. Other

1.7.1. In addition to above, various dangerous events could be triggered by the unique feature of each robot. Please take effective safety measures according to the characteristics of an individual robot.

1.7.2. To ensure safety, when using a laser beam, it must be less than a Class 2 laser, and used in a way that will not harm any operators, the referees, match officials, audience, opponent’s equipment and the game field.

2. Game and Rules

“The Objective”

Two (2) teams play variousgame activities in the park with their Parent robot and Child robot. The Parent robot has to carry Child robot up-to the play zone and the Child robot plays game activity. Each team plays three (3) game activities such as Seesaw, Pole walk and Swing.

Once the Child Robot completes three (3) activities, it can challenge the fourth game activity, which is set in the middle of the park.The team successfully completing the fourth game activity first; accomplishes

“SHABAASH” (appreciation) and is declared “The Winner”.

If no team is able to perform abovementioned winning task, the winner will be decided as per the stated rules.

3. Game field and Objects

(Refer game field Figure-1and Figure- 2 for titles and dimensions)

3.1. The field consists of an area having the dimension of 12000 mm x 12000 mm surrounded by a wooden fence with a height of 50 mm and a thickness of 30mm.

3.2. The competing teams are Red and Blue teams. The game field has two (2) Parent zones [one (1) Red and one (1) Blue]and five (5) Child zones (game activity zones). A child robot plays game activities in the Child zones. The first game activity for both teams (Red and Blue) is identical and at separate location in the respective zones. For remaining activities each Child zone is divided into two (2) halves by 30 mm wide non shiny white tape.

Every team is supposed to play in their own Child zone area.

3.3. The game field also consists of one (1) Blue and one (1) Red start zone for each team. The area of each start zone is 1000 mm x 1000 mm.

3.4. Game activities to be played in Child zones are listed as

3.4.1. Seesaw child zone: Separate for Red and Blue team (Refer Figure-3)

3.4.2. Pole walk child zone (Refer Figure-4)

3.4.3. Swing child zone (Refer Figure-5)

3.4.4. Jungle gym child zone (Refer Figure-6)

3.5. Jungle gym child zone is placed at the centre of the game field.

4. Teams

4.1. Each team comprises of four (4) members consisting of three (3) students and one (1) instructor, all from the same university, polytechnic or college. Only three (3) students are permitted to enter the game field.

4.2. Team members must be enrolled in their University /Polytechnic/College at the time of the international contest. Exceptions to this rule are those who were enrolled in a University/Polytechnic /College at the time of the domestic contest.

4.3. Postgraduate students are not eligible to participate in the competition.


5. Robots

Each team must design and construct by itself one (1) Parent robot (manually operated) and one (1) Child robot (autonomously controlled)to compete in the contest.

5.1. Parent robot

5.1.1. The Parent robot should be operated through a cable connected to it. Wireless radio control is not permitted.

Operators are not permitted to ride on their robot.

5.1.2. When operating via cable, the point where the cable is connected to the robots must be at least 900 mm above the ground. The length of the cable from the Parent robot to the control box should at least be 1000 mm or more but should not exceed 2000 mm.

5.1.3. In the Starting zone, just before the game begins the size of the Parent robot loaded with Child robot cannot exceed (1000 mm L x 1000 mm W x 1000 mm H). Once the game begins the Parent robot may change its form but the size of the Parent robot including the Child robot cannot exceed
the size of a cube of 1500mm during the game.

5.1.4. Team members are not allowed to touch the Parent robot once the game has begun except for the “retry”

5.1.5. A parent robot is permitted to operate in its own Parent zone (Red or Blue)

5.1.6. A portion of a Parent robot can enter the air space of its own Child zone but cannot touch its floor.

5.1.7. Robots of a team are not permitted to touch any of the opponent’s robots.

5.1.8. Parent robot cannot split or separate into two (2) or more units.

5.1.9. Space for pasting stickers /tags (by organizers of the contest) is to be provided on Parent robot. This space should be the size 150 mm x 100 mm

5.2. Child robot

5.2.1. A child robot will neither have wheels nor tracks for locomotion. It can have arms and legs.

5.2.2. A child robot is not permitted to touch the floor area of the Start zone and Parent zone.

5.2.3. Child robot must operate autonomously.

5.2.4. After placing the Child robot in the Child zone, the Parent robot starts the Child robot through a single action.

5.2.5. Once the Child robot starts, no team member is permitted to touch the robots except in the case of “retry”.

5.2.6. The child robot’s size and form may undergo a change during the game, but it should fit into a cube of 500 mm at all times.

5.2.7. Child robot cannot split or separate into two (2) or more units.

5.2.8. Space for pasting stickers /tags (by organizers of the contest) is to be provided on Child robot. This space should be the size of 150 mm x 100 mm

5.3. “Retry” of Parent and Child robot

5.3.1. For Parent and Child robot, any number of “retry” is permitted.

5.3.2. During a “retry”, a Child robot has to take a “retry” by loading itself on the Parent robot in the Parent zone.

5.3.3. After the Child Robot asked for a retry and it is granted, the Child Robot must restart on the Parent Robot. The point of restart is where the Child Robot asked for a retry.

5.3.4. Strategies based on “retry” are not permitted.

5.3.5. On a “retry”, no parts of the robot should be replaced; power sources of the robots should not be recharged. One cannot add a power source also.

5.4. Power Supply for robots

5.4.1. Each team shall prepare its own power supply for its robots.

5.4.2. Voltage of the power supply for robots shall not exceed 24 V DC on load.

5.4.3. A power supply that is considered dangerous or unsuitable by the contest committee shall not be permitted.

5.4.4. The pressure of the compressed air power (if any) must be less than 6 bars.

5.5. Weight

Parent and Child robots including their power sources, cables, remote controller and other parts of each robot shall be weighed prior to the competition. The total allowable weight of all robots and above accessories for each team to be used throughout the contest must not exceed 40 Kg. The total weight of 40 Kg does not include spare batteries and components with same specifications.

5.6. Robot Specifications

Size and weight of each robot will be measured before the competition. Robots that are not made in conformity with this rulebook will not be allowed to participate in the contest.

6. The Competition and Scoring

6.1. Matches

6.1.1. Each match shall last for a maximum of three (3) minutes.

6.1.2. Both the teams have to play Seesaw as their first game activity during the match. The team which completes Seesaw can attempt either Swing or Pole walk as per their choice. However, completing the Swing and Pole walk is must for a team to be eligible to attempt Jungle gym.

6.1.3. The team which completes the fourth game (Jungle gym) first, accomplishes “SHABAASH” and will be declared a winner and the match ends there itself.

6.1.4. In-case, none of the teams is able to complete the fourth game(Jungle gym) or a tie happens for “SHABAASH”, winner will be declared as per the following order of priority: Team with maximum score after considering violations Team completing all three (3) games (Seesaw, Pole walk and Swing) in minimum time Team completing two (2) different games in minimum time with the first activity being See saw. Team completing Seesaw in minimum time If there is a tie after that also, the Judges and Referees decide the winner.

6.2. Competition Rules

A parent robot holding a Child robot starts from the Start zone and reaches to its own Seesaw child zone and completes the activity as follows.

6.2.1. Seesaw Parent robot makes the Child robot sit on the Seesaw seat leaving the Child robot untouched. Child robot should sit on the seat of Seesaw. Child robot is permitted to touch the seat and the handle next to the seat, in order to remain seated on Seesaw. Parent robot should move to opposite side and without sitting on the Seesaw it has to play with Child robot and complete three (3) continuous laps. Parent robot reloads the Child robot upon itself. Completion of a lap’ means that: Seesaw seat of Child robot and seat opposite to that should touch the floor one after the other for each lap. The counting of lap starts, once the seat at Parent robot side touches the Seesaw child zone for the first time after successful placement of Child robot. During the laps the Child robot should not touch the floor area of Seesaw child zone.

6.2.2. After completing the Seesaw activity, a team is eligible to play either Pole walk or Swing.

6.2.3. Pole walk The Parent robot places the Child robot on its own colour disc and leaves the Child robot untouched. Child robot should remain on the disc of its own colour. Child robot is allowed to touch the disc and portion of the pole above the disc while performing the act of disc walk. The Child robot has to walk (travel) on discs and complete the path from disc to disc without skipping any one of its own colour discs and also without touching the floor area of Pole walk child zone. Parent robot reloads the Child robot upon itself.

6.2.4. Swing Parent robot places Child robot on its own colour seat of swing and leaves the Child robot untouched. Child robot is permitted to touch the seat of swing and side chains. Parent robot can initiate swinging for the first lap without touching the Child robot. Next two (2) laps should be performed by the Child robot by itself. However Parent robot can assist Child robot to stop the swinging. Parent robot reloads the Child robot upon itself. Completion of lap’ means that: Any part of the Child robot has to touch the flag kept next to the Swing in order to complete one (1) lap and complete such three (3) continuous laps. No part of the Child robot is allowed to touch the floor area of Swing child zone during the laps.

6.2.5. Only after completing all the three (3) earlier games, a team is eligible to play Jungle gym

6.2.6. Jungle gym Parent robot keeps Child robot on or near the first step of ladder and Parent robot leaves the Child robot untouched. The Child robot climbs the ladder without touching side rails and places itself completely on the top platform of Jungle gym. A preloaded flag (Refer Figure-7) is to be raised by Child robot after getting placed itself on the top platform. Action of raising the flag will enable the team to achieve “SHABAASH”. The teams should make their own flags as per Figure-7 In order to achieve “SHABAASH” the flag should be raised above the topmost point of the Child robot. After successfully completing the Jungle gym by a team first, it accomplishes “SHABAASH” and is declared as winner and the match ends there itself.

6.3. Scoring

6.3.1. Only after successfully completing all the tasks of any game; the game will be considered as “complete” and teams earn points specified for that game.

6.3.2. To earn additional points, Seesaw maybe attempted for maximum three (3) times (of three (3) laps each). To earn additional points Pole walk and Swing maybe attempted for maximum two (2) times.

6.3.3. On a “retry” for Seesaw and Swing, counting of lap will restart from the first count. Prior lap(s) in this case will not be counted.

6.3.4. Points are awarded: Completion of the first game (Seesaw) = 10 points for every completion
(Can be attempted for maximum of three (3) times to earn additional points) Completion of the second game (Pole walk or Swing) = 20 points for every completion (Can be attempted for maximum two (2) times to earn additional points) Completion of the third game (remaining out of Pole walk or Swing) = 50 points for every completion (Can be attempted for maximum two (2) times to earn additional points) Completion of the fourth game (Jungle gym) makes the team accomplish “SHABAASH”. No point for this game and the match ends there itself.

7. Violations and Deduction of Points

Once a game begins, the following actions will be regarded as violations and two (2) points will be deducted for each occurrence.

7.1. A violation occurs if any robot of a team touches an opponent’s robots

7.2. A violation occurs when a Parent robot or a team member touches the floor area of Child zone except in the case of “retry”.

7.3. A violation occurs when Parent robot operator enters the air space of the Child zone except in the case of “retry”.

7.4. A violation occurs when Parent and/or Child robot of any team enters into an opponent’s zone or air space above it.

7.5. A violation occurs when Child robot touches the floor area of Start zones, and Parent zone.

7.6. A violation occurs when Child robot during the action intentionally touches the floor area of Seesaw, Swing and Pole walk

7.7. A violation occurs when a team performs prohibited act as stated in rulebook and FAQs.


8. Disqualification

The following behaviours shall be considered as “disqualifications of the team” by the Judges and Referees for a particular match.
The team will cease to continue with game and the score for that match for that team will not be recorded.

8.1. Causing or attempting to damage the game field, the equipment on the field or the opponent’s robots.

8.2. Members of a team touching their own robots intentionally during the game.

8.3. A robot or any team member(s) intentionally blocking, touching or attacking the opponent’s robots directly or indirectly. However if the robots of any team move or fall into restricted areas by an
accident it should be removed immediately as per Referee’s instructions. (The referee is empowered to determine whether it is an accident or not) Retry may be allowed after that.

8.4. Two (2) False Starts in a match (Parent robot being started before the Referee signals a start.)

8.5. Performing any act against the spirit of fair play and friendship between participating teams.

8.6. Persistently using the cable to guide or pull the Parent robot.

8.7. The team that does not follow the instruction or warning of the Referee.

8.8. Use of communication (such as IR, RF, LASER etc.) between the robots.

8.9. Team not complying point number 6.2.2 and 6.2.5


9. Others

9.1. For any other behaviour not specified in the rules, referees are given full authority to make a decision and their decision is final in the event of a dispute.

9.2. Any amendments to these rules will be announced by the Contest committee and be updated on website <> under FAQ.

9.3. All teams are encouraged to decorate the robots to reflect the culture, aesthetics and styles of their respective countries.

9.4. All robots must be designed and made by student teams. Readymade commercial robots will be disqualified from being used. Teams are not allowed to have sponsor’s logo anywhere on the robots or on the uniform.

9.5. When requested by the contest committee, each participating country will be asked to provide information on their robots, including the video, which explains the structure and the movement of the participating team’s robots. The contest committee will verify whether each participating robots complies with the rules through viewing the videos, prior to the shipment of the robots.

9.6. When using optical sensors teams must consider the fact that there will be very bright lights on the game field for video recording and broadcasting purposes.

9.7. Domestic winner teams should take into account the constraints of transporting batteries via airline services before sending robots for international event.

9.8. The allowable margin of error to the objects in this Rulebook wherever not mentioned is ± 5% both in weight and size.

9.9 Teams should consider the operational height of the Child robot during the game




The contest is played according to the following format: Preliminary Rounds: Round robin within groups.
Winner from each group shall advance to the Quarter-Final.

Quarter-finals: Knock out matches.

Semi-Finals: Knock out matches.

Finals:Knock out match.


Prizes shall include awards for the winners, runner-ups, best idea, best technology, and best design and ABU Robocon award, Sponsors’ awards.



Dr. Sunil Karad
(Chief Convenor)
MIT Academy of Engineering (MIT AOE)
Dehu Phata, Alandi(D), Pune- 412 105, India,
Tel.: +91 – 020 – 30253500, 30253600 Fax : +91 – 020 – 30253799
Email Id :,
Website :,

ABU Robocon 2013 Vietnam Results

FINAL ROUND RESULTS Pri_Round_results All Match Results pr